Biodiversity Conservation in China一、秉持人与自然和谐共生理念
I. Harmony Between Humanity and Nature二、提高生物多样性保护成效
II. Increasing the Efficiency of Biodiversity Conservation三、提升生物多样性治理能力
III. Improving Biodiversity Governance四、深化全球生物多样性保护合作IV. Further Global Cooperation on Biodiversity Conservation
Biodiversity refers to the variety of living species (plants, animals and microorganisms) in their natural environments and the aggregate of the related ecological processes. It is measured on three levels: genes, species and ecosystems. Biodiversity is the basis for human survival and development and has a direct bearing on our wellbeing. Humans must respect nature and follow its ways. We must conserve biodiversity to protect nature and live in harmony with it.
In 1972, at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, the attending nations signed the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which included the conservation of bio-resources in its 26 principles. In 1993, the Convention on Biological Diversity came into effect, which set three objectives – the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, ushering in a new era for the protection of global biodiversity.
China’s land and sea territories are both vast; its complex terrain and diverse climate gave birth to unique ecosystems, abundant species, and rich genetic variety. As one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, China has a profound understanding of biodiversity, as manifest in traditional Chinese culture and these aphorisms: “Man is an integral part of nature”; “Dao follows the laws of nature”; and “All beings are equal”. China, as one of the first countries to sign and approve the Convention on Biological Diversity, has always attached great importance to biodiversity conservation and preserves biodiversity with creative and up-to-date measures, achieving substantial progress on a distinctively Chinese path of conservation.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2012, China has been prioritizing eco-environmental progress and pursuing green development under the guidance of Xi Jinping thought on eco-civilization. A new pattern of biodiversity conservation has largely taken shape, with improvements to the legal system, supervision mechanisms and governing capacity for eco-conservation, marking the beginning of a new era for biodiversity conservation in China. Currently, as species worldwide are becoming extinct at an alarming rate, biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation pose a major risk to human survival and development. On September 30, 2020, at the United Nations Summit on Biodiversity, Chinese President Xi Jinping pointed out that the whole of humanity needs to take on its pressing responsibilities, find a way for human and nature to coexist in harmony, and build synergy for and enhance global governance on the environment. Guided by the vision of building a global community of shared future, China will continue to contribute its part to global environmental governance.
The Chinese government is publishing this white paper to present China’s ideas, plans and actions on biodiversity conservation, and share its progress with the international community.
I. Harmony Between Humanity and Nature
To realize the Beautiful China initiative under a new situation, China is improving the measures for biodiversity conservation and creating new frameworks for this purpose. In its pursuit of harmony between humanity and nature, between individuals, and between the individual and society, China endeavors to create a virtuous circle for all-round development and prolonged prosperity for all.
In addressing biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, China upholds the philosophy of harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature, prioritizing biodiversity conservation and seeking green development. It has established conservation mechanisms led by the government and featuring multilateral governance and win-win cooperation, in which all citizens participate. This way, China keeps making progress and contributing to efforts in global biodiversity conservation.
– Respecting nature and prioritizing biodiversity conservation. China follows the principles of respecting and protecting nature and obeying nature’s laws, and prioritizes biodiversity conservation in social development. Given its eco-environment and natural resources, China has balanced its natural and artificial measures for the conservation and restoration of important ecosystems, species and genetic resources, to ensure ecological security and biological security.
– Seeking green development and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. China cherishes the principle that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, and sees biodiversity as the foundation, objective and means of sustainable development. It has endeavored to promote the efficient and sustainable utilization of bio-resources, to allow nature to restore itself. It promotes green ways of life and work, and seeks development opportunities while preserving nature, to achieve win-win results in both biodiversity conservation and high-quality development.
– Enhancing institutional guarantee and coordinating actions for biodiversity conservation. China has strengthened biodiversity conservation as a national strategy through long-range planning and top-level design, specifying the primary responsibilities at all levels, and improving long-term conservation mechanisms led by the government and facilitated by enterprises with public participation. The China National Committee for Biodiversity Conservation (CNCBC) has taken on a stronger coordinating role. Constant efforts have been made to improve laws, regulations and policies concerning biodiversity conservation, sustainable utilization of bio-resources, and fair and equitable sharing of benefits. All the above efforts are aimed at building a new model for biodiversity conservation and governance.
– Upholding multilateralism and win-win cooperation. Living in harmony with nature through greater efforts on biodiversity conservation becomes an important topic for international exchanges and dialogue. China firmly supports a multilateral biodiversity governance system, fulfills its obligations prescribed in the Convention on Biological Diversity and other environmental treaties, and takes on international responsibilities commensurate to its development stage. China has been providing assistance within its ability to other developing countries, and strengthening exchanges and cooperation on biodiversity to jointly meet global challenges. It endeavors to play a greater role in realizing the vision of harmony between humanity and nature.